This site has limited support for your browser. We recommend switching to Edge, Chrome, Safari, or Firefox.


The Peony Pavilion,” a 16th-century play written by Tang Xianzu during the Ming Dynasty, is one of the most famous love stories of Chinese literature. Originally performed as a 20 hour-long Kunqu opera, the National Ballet of China have created a considerably condensed version that has become one of the key works in their repertoire.


National Ballet of China: “The Peony Pavillion”


Sadler's Wells, London, UK, November 29-December 3, 2016


Rachel Elderkin

Zhang Jian and the National Ballet of China performing “The Peony Pavilion.” Photograph courtesy of National Ballet of China.

subscribe to the latest in dance

“Uncommonly intelligent, substantial coverage.”

  • Weekly articles from the world of dance
  • Wide diversity of reviews, interviews, articles & more
  • Support for quality art journalism

Already a paid subscriber? Login

Choreographed by Fei Bo, the traditional Eastern tale is re-told through Western classical ballet, in a version touched by the theatricality of opera and the modernity of Michael Simon’s minimalist set design. It’s a conflict of style and genre that works to exceptional effect.

The pavilion, in which Du Liniang falls asleep and dreams of the scholar Liu Mengmei (with whom she falls in love) is a bare structure, its detached peonies large and singular. In one scene they sit like giant pouffes on the stage, in another they are suspended from above. The minimal stage design allows for Bo’s slow, spacious choreography to build a vision of its story. Told in two acts, each of three scenes, a ballet of dreamscapes unfolds. Watching it you experience the same feeling of suspended reality—it's as if the dancers are floating, timeless, through Simon’s sparse landscape.

The graceful movements of the female dancers bring an ethereal quality to the work while the men bring strength and energy. In the fluttering white dresses of the first act the corps are soft and sylph-like, their movement characterised by arabesques, bourées and gentle arms. They appear like a modern day version of the wilis of classical ballet, caught in an ancient Eastern story.

Upon awaking, Du Liniang can’t forget her dream love and, although they have never met, she eventually dies of her unrelinquished passion. Zhu Yan is entrancing as the young Liniang. Her expressive, lyrical style is soft yet dynamic, a combination that perfectly captures the conflict of her demure innocence and awakening desire.

Through the first act this scenario unfurls, Liniang accompanied by her ‘other selves.’ In a red gown, the Flower Goddess Liniang (Zhang Jian) guides Liniang to learn the truth of her desire while Kunqu Liniang, performed by opera singer Jia Pengfei, cautions restraint. Her voice cuts through the delicate movement of Liniang's dreams—and your wandering imagination—with its gleeful ‘eeeee,’ more a nasal sighing sound than song.

Liniang repeatedly returns to her dreams of Liu Mengmei. In one they dance together, a fluid, sensuous duet with a fetishistic twist. Caressing Liniang’s foot, Mengmei removes one of her shoes. It’s the connection that unites the dream lovers and they dance together, a seductive, entwining pas de deux, Yan half en pointe, half barefoot. It's an oddly erotic image and it returns in the second act as the corps enter, each wearing one red pointe shoe. It's a surreal vision that aptly captures the dream-like feel of “The Peony Pavilion.”

Like a dream the scenes shift inexplicably; from the pavilion, to a harvest scene with farm labourers, to the underworld. For Chinese speakers, the words Pengfei sings may help clarify the narrative, but understanding them is not essential. The whirling sense of being led, semi-blind, through this shifting world only adds to its enjoyment.

As the music darkens and grey hued peonies replace the magenta of the opening, we enter the underworld. The dramatic style of opera lends its touch to the music and theatricality of this scene. It breaks the floating charm of the work and stirs up the energy. While you could happily drift through the picturesque world National Ballet of China create, the dynamic shift the underworld scene brings awakens the attention.

The ‘infernal judge’ of the underworld is so moved by Liniang’s plight that he grants her permission to return and be united in marriage with Liu Mengmei—or so I learn from the synopsis. The narrative is not always clear, but this outcome leads to a suitably picturesque finale. The wedding procession heralds a sea of red cloaked bodies, circling en masse upon the stage, a tale of dreams and desire drawing to a close in a curtain of falling petals.

In “The Peony Pavilion” demure, delicate femininity conflicts with desire, tradition melds with a modern landscape. It’s expressive, visually mesmeric and, at times, inscrutable. Yet the fact that you might lose the thread of the narrative along the way somehow matters little. National Ballet of China have created a captivating vision that draws you into the dream world of “The Peony Pavilion.”

Rachel Elderkin

Rachel Elderkin is a freelance dance artist and writer based in London. She is a contributor to The Stage and a member of the UK's Critics' Circle. She has previously written for publications including Fjord Review, Exeunt, British Theatre Guide,, the Skinny (Scotland) and LeftLion (Nottingham) where she was Art Editor.



Futur(istic) Classic
INTERVIEWS | Victoria Looseleaf

Futur(istic) Classic

The son of a painter and a set designer, director/choreographer Jean-Christophe Maillot was, it seems, destined to have a life in the theater. Born and raised in Tours, in central France, in 1960, he studied dance and piano at the Conservatoire Nacional de Région de Tours before joining the Rosella Hightower International School of Dance in Cannes.

Continue Reading
A Golden Gift
REVIEWS | Karen Greenspan

A Golden Gift

As Belgian choreographer and dancer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker approached her sixtieth birthday in 2019, she decided to gift herself a solo to the music of one of her favorite partners—Johann Sebastian Bach.

Acts of Defiance
REVIEWS | Victoria Looseleaf

Acts of Defiance

One would think that a dance inspired by the events of the January 6 insurrection—yes, a dance!—would not be the ideal stuff of theater, but the eight members of Laurie Sefton Creates (formerly Clairobscur Dance Company), succeeded in giving life to Sefton’s premiere “Herd. Person?”, while the dance, itself, was occasionally problematic.

Continue Reading
Good Subscription Agency